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Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of 2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

Srivastava, Anup, Shivanandappa, T.
Food chemistry 2011 v.128 no.2 pp. 458-464
antioxidant activity, ascites, chelates, disease prevention, free radical scavengers, glutathione, hepatocytes, human health, humans, lipid peroxidation, low density lipoprotein, mechanism of action, metals, neoplasms, nitric oxide, oxidation, oxidative stress, peroxides, roots, xenobiotics
Currently there is a great deal of interest in the study of natural compounds with free radical scavenging activity because of their potential role in maintaining human health and preventing diseases. In this paper, we report the antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of 2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMMB) isolated from the aqueous extract of Decalepis hamiltonii roots. Our results show that HMMB is a potent scavenger of superoxide (O₂ ⁻), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxide (LOO) physiologically relevant free radicals with IC₅₀ values in the nmolar (5–214) range. HMMB also exhibited concentration dependent secondary antioxidant activities, such as reducing power, metal chelating activity, and inhibition of protein carbonylation. Further, HMMB at nmolar concentration prevented CuSO₄-induced human LDL oxidation. Apart from the in vitro free radical scavenging activity, HMMB demonstrated cytoprotective activity in primary hepatocytes and Ehrlich Ascites Tumour (EAT) cells against oxidative stress inducing xenobiotics. The mechanism of cytoprotective action involved maintaining the intracellular glutathione (GSH), scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Based on the results it is suggested that HMMB is a novel bioactive molecule with health implications in both prevention and amelioration of diseases involving oxidative stress, as well as in the general well being.