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Screening Wheat Genotypes for High Callus Induction and Regeneration Capability from Immature Embryo Cultures

Haliloqlu, Kamil, Baenziger, P. Stephen
Journal of plant biochemistry and biotechnology 2005 v.14 no.2 pp. 155-160
Antilocapra americana, Triticum aestivum, callus, culture media, genotype, host range, picloram, somatic embryos, spring wheat, tissue culture
Selecting the explant genotypes is crucial step in in vitro culture and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system due to its host range specificity. Immature embryos of five winter and three spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars were evaluated for tissue culture response in three callus initiation media. MS medium containing 2,4-0 (2 mg ml⁻¹) plus B5 vitamins (MSB5), MS medium containing 2,4-0 (1 mg ml⁻¹) with no vitamins (MS1GC) or MS medium containing picloram (2.2 mg ml⁻¹) and 2,4-0 (0.5 mg ml⁻¹) plus MS vitamins (CM4C) were used for callus initiation. Percentage of callus induction varied widely with the genotype and initiation medium used, with values ranging from 5.7% to 100%. Embryogenic capacity of genotypes was evaluated by number of somatic embryos formed from cultured immature embryos. Bob White (spring) and NE92458 (winter) were equal and most embryogenic; Pronghorn and 2137 (both winter) were the poorest. CM4C medium was found to be the best medium for initiating embryogenic callus among three culture media tested. A standard regeneration procedure was used. The genotypes with the highest regeneration efficiencies were Bob White, Fielder and NE92458, (1.8, 1.4 and 1.6 plantslexplant, respectively).