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THE effects of industrial effluent discharge on lipid peroxide levels of punti fish (puntius sophore) tissue in comparison with those of freshwater fish

Journal of food lipids 2008 v.15 no.2 pp. 198-208
Puntius, aquatic ecosystems, arachidonic acid, cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol, developing countries, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fatty acid composition, freshwater, freshwater fish, homeostasis, humans, industrial effluents, industrialization, linolenic acid, lipid peroxidation, markets, neoplasms, oxidative stress, peroxides, phospholipids, risk, rivers, stearic acid, tissues
The effect of industrial effluent on the oxidative stress of Puntius sophore (punti fish) tissue was investigated. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring lipid peroxide (LPO) and fatty acid profile as bioindicators. Punti fishes were collected from a river where textile mill effluent is discharged, as well as from fresh water as controls. Homogenized tissues were used for LPO, fatty acid, total cholesterol, phospholipid and protein measurements. LPO levels in both hepatic and extrahepatic tissues increased significantly in the industrial-effluent-exposed fish tissue as compared with those of the freshwater fish (control versus industrial-effluent-exposed fish: hepatic tissues, 54.0 ± 5.0 and 89.0 ± 9.0 nmol/mg protein; extrahepatic tissues, 52.0 ± 9.0 and 270 ± 16.0 nmol/mg protein). Five biologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), significantly decreased, and saturated fatty acid, stearic acid (C18:0), significantly increased in the effluent-exposed fish tissue than those of the freshwater counterpart. Cholesterol level of industrial-effluent-exposed punti fish was 1.5-fold lower than those of the freshwater fish. This study thus suggests that industrial effluent poses a threat, at least partially, through oxidative insult to fish tissues. The study reported here indicates that fish exposed to industrial effluent induce a greater risk of oxidative stress with a resultant increased level of lipid peroxides. Consequently, if these fish with increased oxidative species are ingested by humans, they may cause physiological problems such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer involving disruption of cellular homeostasis. Therefore, an investigation about the oxidative stress of fish tissue in terms of lipid peroxidation could be of considerable significance in Third World countries where consumers remain unaware about the quality of the fish sold in the local markets and are ignorant of the oxidative stress and its consequences. The information of the present investigation may help in providing some preliminary information about the impact of unplanned industrialization on aquatic ecosystem.