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Pharmacodynamic effects of ivabradine, a negative chronotropic agent, in healthy cats

Cober, Richard E., Schober, Karsten E., Buffington, Tony C.A., Li, Xiaobai, Riesen, Sabine C., Bonagura, John D.
Journal of veterinary cardiology 2011 v.13 no.4 pp. 231-242
adverse effects, analysis of variance, blood pressure, cat diseases, cats, hairs, heart rate, ischemia, linear models, oxygen consumption, placebos, radio telemetry, stress response
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacodynamic effects of oral ivabradine in cats. ANIMALS: Eight healthy, adult domestic short hair cats. METHODS: Each cat underwent four study periods of 24 h, receiving either one dose of placebo or ivabradine (0.1 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, and 0.5 mg/kg) in a single-blind randomized crossover study. Clinical tolerance was assessed hourly for the first 8 h, at 12 h, and at the end of the 24-h study period. Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored continuously for 18–24 h via radiotelemetry after each treatment. Response to stress (acoustic startle) was studied before (t = 0) and after treatment (t = 4 h). Statistical comparisons were made using a linear mixed models and 1-way and 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Heart rate (min⁻¹) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner with peak negative chronotropic effects observed 3 h after ivabradine (mean ± SD; placebo, 144 ± 20; ivabradine 0.1 mg/kg, 133 ± 22; ivabradine 0.3 mg/kg, 112 ± 20; and ivabradine 0.5 mg/kg, 104 ± 11). Heart rate (min⁻¹) was still reduced (P < 0.05) 12 h after ivabradine (0.3 mg/kg; 128 ± 18 and 0.5 mg/kg; 124 ± 16) compared to placebo (141 ± 21). The tachycardic response to acoustic startle was significantly (P < 0.01) blunted at all 3 doses of ivabradine. Myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by the rate-pressure product was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) for all doses of ivabradine. No effect of ivabradine on systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure was identified and no clinically discernable side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that a single oral dose of ivabradine predictably lowers heart rate, blunts the chronotropic response to stress, and is clinically well tolerated in healthy cats. This makes ivabradine potentially interesting in the treatment of feline heart disease where ischemia is of pathophysiologic importance.