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Identification of 5α‐reductase isoenzymes in canine skin

Bernardi de Souza, Lucilene, Paradis, Manon, Zamberlam, Gustavo, Benoit‐Biancamano, Marie‐Odile, Price, Christopher
Veterinary dermatology 2015 v.26 no.5 pp. 363
Beagle, alopecia, biopsy, dogs, females, genes, head, isozymes, males, men, messenger RNA, neck, pathogenesis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, skin (animal), tail, testosterone, thighs, thorax, veterinary medicine
BACKGROUND: Alopecia X in dogs is a noninflammatory alopecia that may be caused by a hormonal dysfunction. It may be similar to androgenic alopecia in men that is caused by the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The 5α‐reductase isoenzymes, 5αR1 and 5αR2, and a recently described 5αR3, are responsible for the conversion of testosterone into DHT. However, which 5α‐reductases are present in canine skin has not yet been described. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to determine the pattern of expression of 5α‐reductase genes in canine skin. METHODS: Skin biopsies were obtained from healthy, intact young‐mature beagles (three males, four females) at three anatomical sites normally affected by alopecia X (dorsal neck, back of thighs and base of tail) and two sites generally unaffected (dorsal head and ventral thorax). Prostate samples (n = 3) were collected as positive controls for 5α‐reductase mRNA abundance measurement by real‐time PCR. RESULTS: We detected mRNA encoding 5αR1 and 5αR3 but not 5αR2. There were no significant differences in 5αR1 and 5αR3 mRNA levels between the different anatomical sites, irrespective of gender (P > 0.05). Moreover, the mean mRNA abundance in each anatomical site did not differ between males and females (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the expression of 5α‐reductases in canine skin and the expression of 5αR3 in this tissue. These results may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of alopecia X and to determine more appropriate treatments for this disorder.