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Essential oil yield and composition of Pistacia vera 'Kerman' fruits, peduncles and leaves grown in California

Dragull, Klaus, Beck, John J., Merrill, Glory B.
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2010 v.90 no.4 pp. 664
Pistacia vera, fruits (plant anatomy), essential oils, leaves, volatile compounds, chemical constituents of plants, stems, limonene, terpinolene, California
BACKGROUND: Pistacia vera 'Kerman' is the predominant pistachio nut cultivar in the United States (California), the world's second largest producer. Despite several reports on the essential oil (EO) content in the genus Pistacia, data on 'Kerman' are limited. The EO content and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of tree nut orchards are of current interest to researchers investigating insect pests and the potential role of EO and VOCs as semiochemicals. To establish a basis for the VOC output of pistachios, the EO content of fruits, peduncles, and leaves was analyzed.RESULTS: Evaluated plant parts contained limonene as the primary EO component, followed by α-terpinolene. Peduncles were unique in containing relatively high levels of α-thujene. The results were reproducible between two different geographical locations. In situ solid phase microextraction (SPME) studies demonstrated the volatile emission was representative of the EO composition.CONCLUSION: This is the first report detailing the content and distribution of EO and the unique limonene-dominant profile for this Pistacia vera cultivar which may influence pistachio insect pest semiochemical research.