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Effects of iron injection at birth on neonatal iron status in young pigs from first-parity sows fed delta-aminolevulinic acid
- Wang, J.P., Kim, I.H.
- Animal feed science and technology 2012 v.178 no.3-4 pp. 151-157
- average daily gain, birth weight, dietary supplements, gilts, hemoglobin, iron, lactation, litter size, milk, parturition, piglets, pregnancy, progeny, sows, weaning
- A total of 40 gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire) fed delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or inorganic iron (FeSO₄) and their 392 progeny were used to determine the iron status of sows and piglets at birth and nursing. The experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement with two different additive [90mg of iron/kg (as FeSO₄) and 90mg ALA/kg (ALA90)] and 2 levels of injection with iron-dextran (0 and 200mg) to neonatal pigs within litter. Dietary treatments were fed during entire gestation and lactation period. Sows fed ALA90 diet had larger (P<0.05) litter size born alive and piglets with higher (P<0.01) body weight at birth and weaning compared with sows fed FeSO₄ diet. Plasma hemoglobin (Hb) and iron concentration at d 21, and milk iron concentration of sows were higher (P<0.05) when sows fed ALA90 vs. FeSO₄. Feeding ALA90 to sows and iron injection to piglets increased body weight at d 0, 7 and 21 after birth and average daily gain from d 0–7. During d 0–7 the increase in average daily gain due to iron injection was higher in piglets of sows fed FeSO₄ compared to sows fed ALA90 (ALA×iron injection; P<0.04). Feeding ALA90 to sows and iron injection increased (P<0.05) plasma iron and Hb concentration and hematocrit values of piglets throughout the nursing phase. At d 2 the increase in plasma iron and Hb concentration and hematocrit values of piglets due to iron injection was higher in piglets of sows fed FeSO₄ compared sows fed ALA90 (ALA×iron injection; P<0.05). At d 7 and 21, plasma ceruloplasmin oxidase activity of piglets was reduced (P<0.05) by ALA supplementation to sows and iron injection. In conclusion, this study indicates that dietary supplementation of ALA to sows and iron injection to neonatal piglets can result in increased iron concentration in milk, which may have a beneficial effect on the plasma iron status of sucking pigs.