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Detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage by specific measurement of transferrin glycoforms

Kwon, Seok‐Joon, Zhang, Fuming, Dordick, Jonathan S., Sonstein, William J., Linhardt, Robert J.
Electrophoresis 2015 v.36 no.19 pp. 2425-2432
biomarkers, blood serum, cerebrospinal fluid, electrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, oxidation, patient care, rapid methods, sialidase, surgeons, transferrin
A simple and rapid detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage would benefit spine surgeons making critical postoperative decisions on patient care. We have assessed novel approaches to selectively determine CSF β2‐transferrin (β2TF), an asialo‐transferrin (aTF) biomarker, without interference from serum sialo‐transferrin (sTF) in test samples. First, we performed mild periodate oxidation to selectively generate aldehyde groups in sTF for capture with magnetic hydrazide microparticles, and selective removal with a magnetic separator. Using this protocol sTF was selectively removed from mixtures of CSF and serum containing CSF aTF (β2TF) and serum sTF, respectively. Second, a two‐step enzymatic method was developed with neuraminidase and galactose oxidase for generating aldehyde groups in sTF present in CSF and serum mixtures for magnetic hydrazide microparticle capture. After selectively removing sTF from mixtures of CSF and serum, ELISA could detect significant TF signal only in CSF, while the TF signal in serum was negligible. The new approach for selective removal of only sTF in test samples will be promising for the required intervention by a spine surgeon.