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‘Emerging’ mycotoxins in cereals processing chains: Changes of enniatins during beer and bread making
- Vaclavikova, Marta, Malachova, Alexandra, Veprikova, Zdenka, Dzuman, Zbynek, Zachariasova, Milena, Hajslova, Jana
- Food chemistry 2013 v.136 no.2 pp. 750-757
- Fusarium, baking, barley, beers, breads, brewing, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, flour, food safety, mycotoxins, spent grains, temperature, water solubility, wheat
- Enniatins represent an emerging food safety issue because of their extensive incidence, documented in recent decades, in various small grain cereals. This study was concerned with the fate of these Fusarium mycotoxins within malting, brewing, milling and baking, when employed for the processing of contaminated barley and wheat. Besides enniatins A, A1, B and B1, also deoxynivalenol and its conjugated form (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) were determined in almost all tested cereal-based samples. Significant decline of enniatins occurred within all technologies, with the largest drop in their concentrations observed in the brewing process. While enniatins were not detectable in final beers, they were almost quantitatively transferred to spent grains, probably because of their limited water solubility. Regarding bread baking, levels of enniatins decreased down to 30% of their concentration in the initial flour used for baking. In this case, degradation at higher temperatures might be assumed.