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Sequencing of 15 622 gene‐bearing BACs clarifies the gene‐dense regions of the barley genome

Muñoz‐Amatriaín, María, Lonardi, Stefano, Luo, MingCheng, Madishetty, Kavitha, Svensson, Jan T., Moscou, Matthew J., Wanamaker, Steve, Jiang, Tao, Kleinhofs, Andris, Muehlbauer, Gary J., Wise, Roger P., Stein, Nils, Ma, Yaqin, Rodriguez, Edmundo, Kudrna, Dave, Bhat, Prasanna R., Chao, Shiaoman, Condamine, Pascal, Heinen, Shane, Resnik, Josh, Wing, Rod, Witt, Heather N., Alpert, Matthew, Beccuti, Marco, Bozdag, Serdar, Cordero, Francesca, Mirebrahim, Hamid, Ounit, Rachid, Wu, Yonghui, You, Frank, Zheng, Jie, Simková, Hana, Dolezel, Jaroslav, Grimwood, Jane, Schmutz, Jeremy, Duma, Denisa, Altschmied, Lothar, Blake, Tom, Bregitzer, Phil, Cooper, Laurel, Dilbirligi, Muharrem, Falk, Anders, Feiz, Leila, Graner, Andreas, Gustafson, Perry, Hayes, Patrick M., Lemaux, Peggy, Mammadov, Jafar, Close, Timothy J.
The plant journal 2015 v.84 no.1 pp. 216-227
Aegilops tauschii, Hordeum vulgare, bacterial artificial chromosomes, barley, computer software, crops, genes, genomics, molecular cloning, nucleotide sequences, wheat
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole‐genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene‐containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical‐mapped gene‐bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene‐enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene‐dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map‐anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D‐genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley–Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map‐based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene‐dense but low recombination is particularly relevant.