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The dehydrogenase-mediated recycling of NADPH is a key antioxidant system against salt-induced oxidative stress in olive plants
- VALDERRAMA, RAQUEL, CORPAS, FRANCISCO J., CARRERAS, ALFONSO, GÓMEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, MARÍA V., CHAKI, MOUNIRA, PEDRAJAS, JOSÉ R., FERNÁNDEZ-OCAÑA, ANA, RÍO, LUIS A. DEL, BARROSO, JUAN B.
- Plant, cell and environment 2006 v.29 no.7 pp. 1449-1459
- NAD (coenzyme), glutathione, malic enzyme, NADP-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, confocal laser scanning microscopy, glutathione-disulfide reductase, oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide, isocitrate dehydrogenase, salinity, NADP (coenzyme), superoxide dismutase, olives, salt stress, sodium chloride, glucose 6-phosphate, Olea europaea, leaves
- NADPH is an important molecule in the redox balance of the cell. In this paper, using olive tissue cultures as a model of the function of the NADPH-generating dehydrogenases in the mechanism of oxidative stress induced by severe salinity conditions was studied. When olive (Olea europaea) plants were grown with 200 m [smallcapital m] NaCl, a 40% reduction in leaf fresh weight was produced. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione was diminished between 20% to 39%, whereas the H₂O₂ content was increased threefold. In contrast, the analysis of the activity and protein contents of the main antioxidative enzymes showed a significant increase of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. Overall, these changes strongly suggests that NaCl induces oxidative stress in olive plants. On the other hand, while the content of glucose-6-phosphate was increased almost eightfold in leaves of plants grown under salt stress, the content of NAD(P)H (reduced and oxided forms) did not show significant variations. Under salt stress conditions, the activity and protein contents of the main NADPH-recycling enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), malic enzyme (ME) and ferrodoxin-NADP reductase (FNR) showed an enhancement of 30-50%. In leaves of olive plants grown with 200 m [smallcapital m] NaCl, analysis of G6PDH by immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a general increase of this protein in epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. These results indicate that in olive plants, salinity causes reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress, and plants respond to this situation by inducing different antioxidative enzymes, especially the NADPH-producing dehydrogenases in order to recycle NADPH necessary for the protection against oxidative damages. These NADP-dehydrogenases appear to be key antioxidative enzymes in olive plants under salt stress conditions.