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The COP1 Ortholog PPS Regulates the Juvenile-Adult and Vegetative-Reproductive Phase Changes in Rice

Tanaka, Nobuhiro, Itoh, Hironori, Sentoku, Naoki, Kojima, Mikiko, Sakakibara, Hitoshi, Izawa, Takeshi, Itoh, Jun-Ichi, Nagato, Yasuo
The plant cell 2011 v.23 no.6 pp. 2143-2154
Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, evolution, flowering, genes, leaves, mature plants, mutants, phase transition, rice
Because plant reproductive development occurs only in adult plants, the juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable part of the plant life cycle. We identified two allelic mutants, peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) and pps-2, that prolong the juvenile phase in rice (Oryza sativa) and showed that rice PPS is an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. The pps-1 mutant exhibits delayed expression of miR156 and miR172 and the suppression of GA biosynthetic genes, reducing the GA₃ content in this mutant. In spite of its prolonged juvenile phase, the pps-1 mutant flowers early, and this is associated with derepression of RAP1B expression in pps-1 plants independently of the Hd1-Hd3a/RFT1 photoperiodic pathway. PPS is strongly expressed in the fourth and fifth leaves, suggesting that it regulates the onset of the adult phase downstream of MORI1 and upstream of miR156 and miR172. Its ability to regulate the vegetative phase change and the time of flowering suggests that rice PPS acquired novel functions during the evolution of rice/monocots.