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Evolution of mating systems and sexual size dimorphism in North American cyprinids

M. Pyron, T. E. Pitcher, S. J. Jacquemin
Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 2013 v.67 no.5 pp. 747-756
Cyprinidae, body size, dimorphism, females, fish, males, mating systems, models, phylogeny, spawning, sperm competition, testes
Mating systems evolve with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in many animals. Mating systems with males larger than females occur when males compete for female access or guard territories, while mating systems with group mating tend to occur in species where females are the same size or larger than males. In addition to variation in SSD with mating system, sperm competition varies among mating systems in predictable patterns. We examined the evolution of mating systems with SSD and testes mass in 111 North American Cyprinidae fishes using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our results demonstrate that the evolution of mating systems in Cyprinidae fishes is from ancestral taxa that are group spawners with females the same size or larger than males to pair spawning systems where males tend to be larger than females. We used an additive model to predict male and female body size from testes mass and mating system. Only mating system varied predictably with SSD. Our results for analyses of hyperallometry (Rensch’s rule) were that individual species of Cyprinidae can have hyperallometry for SSD, but the pattern is not present across all taxa.