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Land sparing or sharing? Exploring livestock fodder options in combination with land use zoning and consequences for livelihoods and net carbon stocks using the FALLOW model

Lusiana, Betha, van Noordwijk, Meine, Cadisch, Georg
Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 2012 v.159 pp. 145-160
carbon sinks, carrying capacity, conservation areas, ecosystem services, farmers, farming systems, forage, forest policy, forests, greenhouse gas emissions, harvesting, landscapes, livelihood, livestock, models, profits and margins, watersheds, zoning, Indonesia
Livestock as an integral part of farming systems can increase resource use efficiency and land use intensity of agricultural systems, but can also be a driver of forest conversion and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Forest policies that limit land use options may be able to halt forest change, if strongly enforced, but concurrently may also reduce livestock carrying capacity. This study explored the use of the spatially explicit FALLOW model, with a new livestock module, to assess the impact of land use zoning strategies, in combination with access to fodder harvesting, on welfare, fodder availability and landscape carbon stocks in the Upper Konto catchment, Indonesia. The existing land zoning in Upper Konto catchment is in name ‘land-sparing’ but de facto combined with ‘land sharing’ approach with access to cut and carry fodder sources in watershed protection areas. Scenario analysis revealed that the existing land zoning approach is the most promising in terms of balancing fodder availability, farmers’ welfare (total profits gained from production in the landscape minus products consumed by people living in the area) and ecosystem functions (with above-ground carbon stocks as indicator). A pure land sparing approach with agricultural intensification indicates increase in farmers’ welfare but with a higher decrease (in percentage) of landscape above-ground carbon stocks. Hence, careful integration of livestock systems into zoned conservation areas can achieve multiple goals including enhancing peoples’ livelihoods and protecting environmental services.