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Subcellular and tissue localization of NAD kinases from Arabidopsis: compartmentalization of de novo NADP biosynthesis

Waller, Jeffrey C., Dhanoa, Preetinder K., Schumann, Uwe, Mullen, Robert T., Snedden, Wayne A.
Planta 2010 v.231 no.2 pp. 305-317
Arabidopsis thaliana, proteins, NAD (coenzyme), biosynthesis, transgenes, transgenic plants, NADP (coenzyme), tissue distribution, root primordia, reporter genes, phosphotransferases (kinases), leaves
The de novo biosynthesis of the triphosphopyridine NADP is catalyzed solely by the ubiquitous NAD kinase family. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains two genes encoding NAD⁺ kinases (NADKs), annotated as NADK1, NADK2, and one gene encoding a NADH kinase, NADK3, the latter isoform preferring NADH as a substrate. Here, we examined the tissue-specific and developmental expression patterns of the three NADKs using transgenic plants stably transformed with NADK promoter::glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene constructs. We observed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of GUS activity among the NADK::GUS plants. All three NADK::GUS transgenes were expressed in reproductive tissue, whereas NADK1::GUS activity was found mainly in the roots, NADK2::GUS in leaves, and NADK3::GUS was restricted primarily to leaf vasculature and lateral root primordia. We also examined the subcellular distribution of the three NADK isoforms using NADK-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins expressed transiently in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells. NADK1 and NADK2 were found to be localized to the cytosol and plastid stroma, respectively, consistent with previous work, whereas NADK3 localized to the peroxisomal matrix via a novel type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal. The specific subcellular and tissue distribution profiles among the three NADK isoforms and their possible non-overlapping roles in NADP(H) biosynthesis in plant cells are discussed.