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Conversion of Isoeugenol to Vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. Strain CSW4

Ashengroph, Morahem, Nahvi, Iraj, Zarkesh-Esfahani, Hamid, Momenbeik, Fariborz
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 2012 v.166 no.1 pp. 1-12
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Psychrobacter, bacteria, biotransformation, harvesting, high performance liquid chromatography, phylogeny, salt tolerance, screening, spectral analysis, thin layer chromatography, vanillin, Iran
To screen strains of halotolerant or halophile bacteria which are able to convert isoeugenol to vanillin, 36 different strains of bacteria isolated from the salty environments in Iran were investigated. During growth on isoeugenol, a moderately halotolerant Gram-negative coccobacil showed capability of converting isoeugenol to vanillin. Based on morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic studies, strain CSW4 was classified as a bacterium belonging to the genus Psychrobacter. The bioconversion products were confirmed by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and spectral data obtained from UV/Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, and mass-spectroscopy. Using growing cells, vanillin reached its maximum level of 88.18 mg L−1 after 24 h of reaction time in the presence of 1 g L−1 isoeugenol, resulting in a molar yield of 10.2%. The use of resting cells led to the optimal yield of vanillin (16.4%) which was obtained after 18-h reaction using 1 g L−1 isoeugenol and 3.1 g of dry weight of cells per liter harvested at the end of the exponential growth phase. To improve vanillin yield, the effect of substrate concentration on vanillin production under resting cells conditions was also investigated. Using 10 g L−1 isoeugenol, the maximal vanillin concentration (1.28 g L−1) was achieved after a 48-h reaction, without further optimization. The present study brings the first evidence for biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin in the genus Psychrobacter.