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Identification of Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Polyphenols That Inhibit and Promote Iron Uptake by Caco-2 Cells

Hart, Jonathan J., Tako, Elad, Kochian, Leon V., Glahn, Raymond P.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.25 pp. 5950-5956
Phaseolus vulgaris, bioavailability, black beans, breeding, catechin, colorimetry, human cell lines, iron, kaempferol, myricetin, polyphenols, quercetin, testa
In nutritional studies, polyphenolic compounds are considered to be inhibitors of Fe bioavailability. Because they are presumed to act in a similar manner, total polyphenols are commonly measured via the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. This study measured the content of polyphenolic compounds in white and black beans and examined the effect of individual polyphenols on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Analysis of seed coat extracts by LC-MS revealed the presence of a range of polyphenols in black bean, but no detectable polyphenols in white bean. Extracts from black bean seed coats strongly inhibited iron uptake. Examination of the eight most abundant black bean seed coat, non-anthocyanin polyphenols via Caco-2 cell assays showed that four (catechin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, kaempferol, and kaempferol 3-glucoside) clearly promoted iron uptake and four (myricetin, myricetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, and quercetin 3-glucoside) inhibited iron uptake. The four inhibitors were present in 3-fold higher total concentration than the promoters (143 ± 7.2 vs 43.6 ± 4.4 μM), consistent with the net inhibitory effect observed for black bean seed coats. The ability of some polyphenols to promote iron uptake and the identification of specific polyphenols that inhibit Fe uptake suggest a potential for breeding bean lines with improved iron nutritional qualities.