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Pro-oxidative and Antioxidative Controls and Signaling Modification of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals: Contribution to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention?

Chu, Kai On, Chan, Sun-On, Pang, Chi Pui, Wang, Chi Chiu
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2014 v.62 no.18 pp. 4026-4038
animal models, bioactive properties, cell culture, disease prevention, functional foods, health promotion, in vivo studies, inflammation, neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, phytopharmaceuticals
Polyphenolic phytochemicals (PPs) have been extensively studied as potential nutriceuticals for maintenance of health and treatment of cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. However, the reported beneficial outcomes are inconsistent. The biological activities of PPs have been attributed to their pro-oxidative and antioxidative actions and effects on signaling mechanisms and epigenomic modifications. These diversified properties were described or postulated on the basis of a variety of experimental studies using cell culture and animal models, even though most have not been replicated and results are not validated. This review attempts to give an overview of biological properties of PPs, based on the coherent results from relevant studies, and evaluate critically the experimental conditions and possible artifacts. Complicated molecular mechanisms and multitargeting genomic interactions of PPs are discussed, with a view that reasonable mechanistic propositions are usually obtained from well-designed in vivo studies.