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Reaction of the Core Collection of Peanut Germplasm to Sclerotinia Blight and Pepper Spot

Damicone, J.P., Holbrook, C.C., Smith, D.L., Melouk, H.A., Chamberlin, K.D.
Peanut science 2010 v.37 no.1 pp. 1-11
Arachis hypogaea, peanuts, plant genetic resources, germplasm, genetic variation, genotype, Sclerotinia minor, plant pathogenic fungi, fungal diseases of plants, disease incidence, disease resistance, genetic resistance, plant architecture, maturity groups, foliar diseases, Leptosphaerulina, plant adaptation, vigor, germplasm screening, cultivars, crop yield, Phoma
In 2001, entries from the peanut core collection, a subset of the USDA peanut germplasm collection, were planted in non-replicated plots in a field with a history of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor. Variability existed among entries for reaction to Sclerotinia blight. Of the 744 entries evaluated, 11% had no disease, nearly 30% had <10% disease incidence, and only 21% had 50% disease incidence or more. Most of the resistant entries had an upright growth habit and were in early and mid-maturity groups. Many of the early maturing entries were susceptible to the foliar disease pepper spot which occurred throughout the study. Entries were selected for further evaluation in replicated plots based on a nil to low (<10%) incidence of Sclerotinia blight, adaptation and/or vigor, and other desirable characteristics such as an intermediate to prostrate growth habit and pepper spot resistance. Selected entries were retested in both 2002 and 2003 (n = 62) and compared to resistant (Tamspan 90), moderately resistant (Tamrun 96), and susceptible (Okrun) reference cultivars. Most entries (55 in 2001 and 46 in 2003) had disease incidence less than Tamrun 96 and similar to Tamspan 90. In 2003 when disease incidence was highest, all 46 entries with resistant reactions similar to that of Tamspan 90 had erect plant growth habits except for entries 208 and 582 which were prostrate, and entries 273, 128, and 804 which were intermediate. Resistance to Sclerotinia blight and yield similar to Tamspan 90, plant habit, and/or reactions to pepper spot and web blotch were used to select the best entries. Entries 208, 128, 804, 582, and 273 combined resistance to Sclerotinia blight, pepper spot, and web blotch with less than erect growth habits. Entry 103 had good Sclerotinia blight resistance and yield, but an upright growth habit. Entry 92 had an upright growth habit and low yield, but good Sclerotinia blight resistance. Entries 92 and 103 had upright growth habits but were among the best entries for resistant to pepper spot and web blotch. Entries 426, 184, and 562 were upright and susceptible to pepper spot, but had resistance to web blotch and the best resistance to Sclerotinia blight. These entries appear to be useful sources of resistance to Sclerotinia blight for breeding programs and for increasing the probability of finding additional sources of resistance in clusters of germplasm identified within the entire USDA collection.