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Anther culture of Lupinus angustifolius: callus formation and the development of multicellular and embryo-like structures

Kozak, Kamila, Galek, Renata, Waheed, Mohammad Tahir, Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa
Plant growth regulation 2012 v.66 no.2 pp. 145-153
Lupinus angustifolius, androgenesis, anther culture, anthers, buds, callus formation, developmental stages, genotype, haploidy, inflorescences, kinetin, microspores, naphthaleneacetic acid, pretreatment, roots
Androgenesis is an important technique to generate double haploid plants. Anther and microspore cultures are the methods to induce haploid embryogenesis. For culture initiation, it is necessary to select anthers with the appropriate developmental stage of microspores. For lupins, limited reports about the establishment of initial cultures for androgenesis are available. In this study, different parameters of anther culture of three genotypes of Lupinus angustifolius were investigated. For all genotypes, a considerable correlation was observed between the buds and the anthers, depending on their location in the inflorescences. Buds from the central segment of inflorescences had yellowish green anthers that contained the maximum number of microspores at uninucleate stage. Cytological investigation shows that the anthers containing these microspores were the most responsive to induction. Two types of developmental pathways were observed for microspores. In case of cold pre-treated and untreated inflorescences, microspores developed into multicellular and embryo-like structures, respectively. Effects of different factors showed significant differences among: genotypes, pre-treatment, growth regulators (GRs) and genotypes × GRs interaction. Among three genotypes, Emir showed the highest number of multicellular and embryo-like structures on MS medium + 2.0 mg/l 2,4 D + 0.5 mg/l Kinetin (Kin). For all genotypes, anthers produced calli on MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l 2,4 D + 0.5 mg/l Kin. These calli continued their growth on regeneration medium (MS + 2.0 mg/l BA + 0.5 mg/l NAA) and produced roots. Taken together, these results provide a good basis for further research towards the development of haploid plants for L. angustifolius.