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Resveratrol- and α-viniferin-induced alterations of acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase in Raillietina echinobothrida
- Giri, Bikash Ranjan, Roy, Bishnupada
- Parasitology research 2015 v.114 no.10 pp. 3775-3781
- Carex baccans, Gnetaceae, Raillietina, Vitaceae, acetylcholinesterase, death, drugs, enzyme inhibitors, helminthiasis, helminths, medicinal plants, neurotransmitters, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, nutritive value, phytopharmaceuticals, praziquantel, resveratrol, viability, viniferins, India
- Phytostilbenes, like resveratrol and α-viniferin, which occur mainly in the plants and belong to the families Cyperaceae, Vitaceae, and Gnetaceae are extensively popular for their medicinal and nutritional properties. In Northeast India, the Jaintia tribes consume these phytochemicals through aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Carex baccans to control helminthiasis. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of the phytochemicals on neurotransmitters and its related enzymes in helminth parasite Raillietina echinobothrida. Viability of the parasites exposed to the phytostilbenes and extent of inhibition of cholinergic and nitrergic enzymes were evaluated in comparison to reference anthelmintic drug praziquantel and two known enzyme inhibitors, namely Nω-nitro-L-arginine and pyridostigmine. On exposure to resveratrol, α-viniferin, and reference drug praziquantel, the parasites ceased movement at 9.37, 11.38, and 0.24 h followed by death at 23.65, 34.13, and 1.87 h, respectively. Exposed parasites also showed a significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (46.101, 65.935, and 63.645 %) and nitric oxide synthase (61.241, 55.046, and 29.618 %) in comparison to the controls. In addition, a decreased trend in nitric oxide (NO) level was also detected in the tissue of different phytochemical-exposed parasites compared to control. The present study suggests that anthelmintic potential of both the phytochemicals is mediated through inhibition of two vital enzymes which play diverse role in intracellular communications through neuromuscular system.