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Nano-CeO2 decorated graphene based chitosan nanocomposites as enzymatic biosensing platform: fabrication and cellular biocompatibility assessment

De, Sriparna, Mohanty, Smita, Nayak, Sanjay Kumar
Bioprocess and biosystems engineering 2015 v.38 no.9 pp. 1671-1683
X-ray diffraction, biocompatibility, biosensors, cationic surfactants, cell viability, ceric oxide, chitosan, detection limit, electrochemistry, electrodes, glucose, glucose oxidase, graphene, graphene oxide, hot water treatment, humans, immobilized enzymes, impedance, macrophages, nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanosheets, polymer nanocomposites, shelf life, synergism, transmission electron microscopy
The present study summarizes the designing of a green transducer phase based on nano-cerium oxide (CeO₂) decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) reinforced chitosan nanocomposites as an effective enzyme immobilizer and bio-sensing matrix for glucose analyte. Also, it scrutinizes the biocompatibility and cell viability of the synthesized nanohybrid with human fibroblastic macrophage cell line. CeO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully grown on graphene nanosheet in the presence of cationic surfactant followed by facile hydrothermal treatment. The eventual growth of synthesized CeO₂ nanocrystals on the graphene layer was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman analysis. The biocompatibility of the synthesized nanohybrid was also evident from the MTT assay. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed on the green polymer nanocomposites modified FTO electrode to fabricate an enzymatic bioelectrode. The electroanalytical response of the GOx/nano-CeO₂/RGO/CS/FTO bioelectrode towards electrooxidation of glucose analyte was investigated by electrochemical impedance (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) study. The resulting biosensor exhibited a good electrochemical response to glucose within the linear detection range of 0.05–6.5 mM with a low detection limit of 2 μM and a sensitivity of 7.198 μA mM⁻¹ cm⁻². The bioelectrode also showed good shelf life (~10 weeks) and negligible interfering ability under controlled environment. The obtained results indicate that nano-CeO₂/RGO nanohybrid based chitosan nanocomposites achieve a biocompatible biosensing platform for effective enzyme immobilization due to the excellent synergistic effects between the CeO₂ nanoparticles and graphene sheet.