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Genetic fidelity assessment in micropropagated plants using cytogenetical analysis and heterochromatin distribution: a case study with Nepenthes khasiana Hook f.

Devi, Soibam Purnima, Kumaria, Suman, Rao, Satyawada Rama, Tandon, Pramod
Protoplasma 2015 v.252 no.5 pp. 1305-1312
4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, Nepenthes, binding sites, biotechnology, case studies, chromosome number, genotype, heterochromatin, industry, micropropagation, plantlets, tissue culture
Rapid clonal propagation of selected genotypes has been one of the most extensively exploited approaches of biotechnology. However, inclusion of somaclonal variations in tissue-culture-derived plants results in the production of undesirable plant off-types which limits its applications in tissue culture industry. Therefore, the most critical concern has been the maintenance of genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. Assessment of genetic fidelity in tissue-culture-raised plants of three consecutive regenerations of Nepenthes khasiana has been successfully carried out using chromosome counts and heterochromatin distribution pattern wherein changes in the number of chromosomes and the distribution of AT and GC base pairs were recorded. The cells studied in the plantlets of the first regeneration (23.33 %) showed deviant number of chromosome which was increased to 33.33 % and 40 % in the plantlets of the second and the third regenerations, respectively. Also, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)⁺ and chromomycin A3 (CMA)⁺ binding sites, on an average of 5.74 ± 0.47 and 5.00 ± 0.30, were observed in the plantlets of the first regeneration. Subsequently, DAPI⁺ binding sites were increased to 6.61 ± 0.39 and 6.74 ± 0.57 in the plantlets of the second and the third regenerations, respectively, with a corresponding decrease in the CMA⁺ binding sites (4.63 ± 0.45 and 4.16 ± 0.47 CMA⁺ sites in the plantlets of the second and the third regenerations, respectively). The study reveals an increase in cytological variations in the morphologically similar micropropagated plants of N. khasiana with the subsequent regenerations which further necessitate the determination of genetic integrity of micropropagated plants.