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Development and feeding of Tetraphleps galchanoides, a predator of the hemlock woolly adelgid

McAvoy, T.J., Zilahi-Balogh, G.M.G., Salom, S.M., Kok, L.T., Guoliang, Z.
BioControl 2007 v.52 no.3 pp. 339-350
Adelges tsugae, Hemiptera, Pineus strobi, Tetraphleps, Tsuga, adults, biological control, body measurements, eggs, females, host preferences, instars, leaves, males, nymphs, quarantine, rearing, testing, China, Virginia
Tetraphleps galchanoides Ghauri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) nymphs were collected from hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) infested Tsuga sp. in Baoxing, Sichuan, China. First and second stage nymphs collected from foliage shipped from China; were reared to adults and tested for feeding rates and host preferences. They were reared at 5, 8, 12, and 15 ± 1 °C from November to December, January to March, April, and May to June, respectively, in the quarantine laboratory at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. At 8 °C, development time was 15, 20, and 40 days for the N-III, IV, and V nymphal stages, respectively. Adult males lived 83 days with a range of 21–147 days. A single adult female lived for 21 days. At 5 °C, second stage T. galchanoides nymphs consumed 0.8 HWA nymphs per day, and 2.0 HWA nymphs per day at the N-V stage. At 8 °C, consumption of HWA nymphs ranged from 1.3 to 3.4 nymphs per day for the N-III to N-V stages, respectively. Adult T. galchanoides consumed more HWA eggs than HWA adults, pine bark adelgid (PBA) Pineusstrobi (Hartig) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) adults, and eggs in no-choice tests. In choice tests with HWA eggs and PBA eggs, more HWA eggs were eaten. Adult and nymph body measurements are presented for determination of nymphal instars.