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Preparation of high yield multi-walled carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition at low temperature

Chen, Mi, Chen, Chieng-Ming, Chen, Chia-Fu
Journal of materials science 2002 v.37 no.17 pp. 3561-3567
Raman spectroscopy, acetylene, benzene, carbon dioxide, carbon nanotubes, hydrogen, methane, microstructure, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, silicon, temperature, transmission electron microscopes, transmission electron microscopy, vapors
Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes(CNTs) with multi-walled structure were successfully grown on a Fe-deposited Si substrate at low temperature below 330°C by using the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of methane and carbon dioxide gas mixture. This is apparently different from the conventional reaction in gas mixtures of hydrogen and methane, hydrogen and acetylene, and hydrogen and benzene ... etc. High quality carbon nanotubes were grown at lower temperature with CO₂ and CH₄ gas mixture than those used by the previous. After deposition, the microstructure morphology of carbon nanotubes was observed with scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The characteristics of carbon nanotubes were analyzed by laser Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the variation of the flow rate ratio of CH₄/CO₂ from 28.5 sccm/30 sccm to 30/30 sccm and the DC bias voltage from −150 V to −200 V, at 300 W microwave power, 1.3–2.0 kPa range of total gas pressure, and substrate temperatures between 300°C and 350°C. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with the diameter of about 15 nm and multi-walled structure were illustrated by SEM and HRTEM. However, the highest yield of carbon nanotubes of about 50% was obtained at low temperature below 330°C by MPCVD for the CH₄/CO₂ gas mixture with properly controlled parameters.