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Defence response produced during photodynamic damage in transgenic rice overexpressing 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase

Jung, S., Back, K., Yang, K., Kuk, Y. I., Chon, S.-U.
Photosynthetica 2008 v.46 no.1 pp. 3-9
Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Oryza sativa, antioxidant activity, chlorophyll, gene overexpression, genes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, light intensity, messenger RNA, photosystem II, proteins, rice, superoxide dismutase, transgenic plants, zeaxanthin
Photodynamic and photoprotective responses at different irradiances were investigated in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) expressing Bradyrhizobium japonicum 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALA-S). With high irradiance (HI) of 350 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹, transgenic lines P5 and P14 showed a decrease in contents of chlorophyll (Chl) and the chloroplast-encoded gene psbA mRNA, whereas a decrease in light-harvesting Chl-binding proteins was observed only in P14. These effects were not observed in the wild-type (WT) line treated with HI or all of the lines treated with low irradiance (LI) of 150 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. HI resulted in a greater decrease in the quantum yield of photosystem 2 and a greater increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the transgenic lines, particularly in P14, compared to WT. Photoprotective zeaxanthin contents increased at HI, even though carotenoid contents were lower in the transgenic lines compared to WT. When exposed to HI, superoxide dismutase greatly increased in transgenic lines P5 and P14, but peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased only in P14, in which more photodynamic damage occurred. Thus the greater expression of ALA-S in the transgenic plants developed the stronger protective functions, i.e. the increased values of NPQ and zeaxanthin, as well as more photodynamic reactions, i.e. decreased photosynthetic component and efficiency, in the photosynthetic complexes. However, the photodynamic reactions indicate that the antioxidant capacity was insufficient to cope with the severe stress triggered by photoactive porphyrins in the transgenic rice expressing ALA-S.