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Genealogical analysis of the use of aegilops (Aegilops L.) genetic material in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Martynov, S. P., Dobrotvorskaya, T. V., Mitrofanova, O. P.
Russian journal of genetics 2015 v.51 no.9 pp. 855-862
Aegilops, Triticum aestivum, breeding, data analysis, databases, gene pool, genes, genetic markers, pedigree, temporal variation, wheat, Central European region, North America
A genealogical analysis of accessions in the global gene pool of the wheat database GRIS4.0 showed that the use of the genetic material of Aegilops in wheat breeding began about half a century ago. During this time, more than 1350 varieties and 9000 lines, the pedigree of which contains Aegilops species, were created in different regions of the world. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the distribution of wheat varieties containing the genetic material of Aegilops was investigated. Analysis of the data showed that most commercial varieties with a pedigree including Ae. tauschii and/or Ae. umbellulata were created and grown in North America. More than 70% of the varieties were produced with Ae. ventricosa, which is common in western and central Europe. A gradual increase in the proportion of varieties with Aegilops genetic material was recorded from 1962 to 2011. The percentage of varieties created with the involvement of Ae. umbellulata increased from 1–5% in the 1960s to 25–29% in the 2000s. Those created with Ae. tauschii increased from 0 to 14–18%, and those created with Ae. ventricosa increased from 1 to 34–37%. The increases in the number of these varieties indicates that the resistance genes from Aegilops species retain their effectiveness. Genealogical analysis of the varieties in which resistance genes from Aegilops were postulated revealed that varieties or lines that were sources of identified genes were often absent in the pedigree. This may be due to an incorrect pedigree record or errors in the identification of resistance genes by phytopathological testing and/or the use of molecular markers, or confusion in nurseries. Preliminary analysis of pedigrees provides an opportunity to reveal discrepancies between the pedigree and postulated genes.