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Evaluation of some Methods for Fish Canning Wastewater Treatment

Fahim, Fawzia A., Fleita, Daisy H., Ibrahim, Abdallah M., El-Dars, Farida M. S.
Water, air, and soil pollution 2001 v.127 no.1-4 pp. 205-226
alum, biochemical oxygen demand, calcium, calcium hydroxide, canning, chemical oxygen demand, coagulation, feeds, ferric chloride, flocculation, forestry, iron, irrigation, mackerel, oils, protein content, sardines, wastewater, wastewater treatment
A fish canning facility processes 1900–2000 tons of mackerel and sardine annually at arate of 10–15 tons per day for a total of 200 days yr⁻¹. This factory generates an average of 20 m³ of industrial wastewaters per day. The objective of our study, which was carried out on a bimonthly basisfrom December 1995 to November 1996, was to determine the overall pollutant load associated with this effluent in relation to the applicable Egyptian Standards and to propose methods for pollutant load reduction before discharging it to the local sewer. The methods were to benefit through the recovery of wasted organic load and transform it into an environmentally safe residue amenable for either immediate reuse or final disposal thereafter. Five chemical coagulation/flocculation treatments were tried using ferric chloride, alum, lime, ferric chloride and lime, and alum and lime. The best method involved the use of FeCl₃ and Ca(OH)₂ (0.4 g Fe L⁻¹ and 0.2 g Ca L⁻¹, respectively) which reduced the average influent BOD₅ from 989 to 204 mg L⁻¹, the COD from 1324 to 320 mg L⁻¹, TSS from 4485 to 206 mg L⁻¹, total protein content from 812 to 66 mg L⁻¹ and oil and grease from 320 to 66 mg L⁻¹. The separated dried precipitate averaged 50 g L⁻¹ which was found to contain 40% by weight recovered protein and 20% recovered fat. The solid was ideal for on-site reprocessing as animal feed. As well, the final effluent, if not discharged to the area sewer, was safe for controlled use in some irrigation applications or forestry projects at the desert area surrounding the factory.