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Behaviour of 2,4-D Herbicide in Coastal Area of Oka River, Russia

Galiulin, R. V., Bashkin, V. N., Galiulina, R. R.
Water, air, and soil pollution 2001 v.129 no.1-4 pp. 1-12
2,4-D, alluvial soils, coasts, field experimentation, irrigation management, migratory behavior, pH, rivers, runoff, sand, soil sampling, temperature, watersheds, Russia
Laboratory and field experiments werecarried out with 2,4-D herbicide(2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) to evaluate itstransformation and migration in the coastal waterprotection zones of the Oka river, Russia. In thefirst laboratory experiment, the transformation of2,4-D was studied in various soil samples from coastalslopes (1–0°) of 480 m length soil-geochemicalcatena on the right side of the Oka river incomparison with watershed and floodplain soils. Thetransformation of 2,4-D was the lowest in soil sampleswith minimal pH values and was independent of eitherslope values or vicinity to the Oka river channel.Using indirect estimates, the surface runoff potentialwas calculated for this herbicide. In the second fieldexperiment, the vertical migration and transformationof 2,4-D was carried out in soddy sand soil (EutricArenosol) placed in the left side of the Oka river(0-100 cm) under `soft' (40 mm 2 hr⁻¹) and `hard'(40 mm 15 min⁻¹) irrigation regimes. Furthermore, thetransformation of this herbicide was studied in 0–20and 40–50 cm soil layers under various temperature andmoisture regimes. After 1 day of irrigation, the mainherbicide quantity was found in the 0–30 cm layerunder both irrigation regimes. The transformation ofthe herbicide was faster in the surface, 0–20 cmlayer, than in the deeper, 40–50 cm layer.