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Small heat shock proteins and diabetes

Sudnitsyna, M. V., Gusev, N. B.
Moscow University biological sciences bulletin 2015 v.70 no.2 pp. 72-77
amino acids, apoptosis, brain, carbohydrate metabolism, carbohydrates, crosslinking, diabetes, glycation, glycosylation, heart, heat shock proteins, hyperglycemia, insulin, kidney cells, metabolites, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, retina
This review is devoted to the analysis of probable participation of small heat shock proteins in different cellular processes of diabetes. Diabetes causes metabolic stress that is accompanied by change of carbohydrate metabolism, accumulation of products of glycation and glycosylation, modulation of protein kinase activity, modulation of redox state of the cell and increase of reactive oxygen species. All these processes can increase expression of small heat shock proteins. Therefore, diabetes increases the level of small heat shock proteins in the heart and retina and certain brain regions and in the kidney cells. Increase of the level of small heat shock proteins can improve transduction of insulin signal and protect the cell against oxidative stress and apoptosis. Different ways providing increase of the level of small heat shock proteins are analyzed. Different mechanisms of covalent modification of proteins by carbohydrates and their metabolites are described. Data are presented that indicate that hyperglycemia induces modification of different amino acid residues. This leads to the changes in the structure, chemical crosslinking, and modulation of physiologically important properties of the small heat shock proteins. Further detailed investigation of small heat shock proteins might be important for utilization of these proteins as a promising potential target for development of new approaches for treatment of different forms of diabetes.