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Comparison of the Biological Impacts of the Fluoride Compounds by Graphical Risk Visualization Map Technique

Usuda, Kan, Kono, Rei, Ueno, Takaaki, Ito, Yuichi, Dote, Tomotaro, Yokoyama, Hirotaka, Kono, Koichi, Tamaki, Junko
Biological trace element research 2015 v.167 no.1 pp. 84-90
alanine transaminase, aluminum, aqueous solutions, aspartate transaminase, barium, beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, blood flow, blood serum, calcium, creatinine, lanthanum, lithium, magnesium, potassium, risk, risk assessment, sodium, sodium fluoride, solubility, strontium, urine, zinc
Various fluoride compounds are widely used in industry. The present risk assessment study was conducted using a series of inorganic binary fluorides of the type XFₙ, where Xⁿ = Na⁺, K⁺, Li⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Sr²⁺, Ba²⁺, Al³⁺, Nd³⁺, La³⁺, Ce³⁺, Sm³⁺, Gd³⁺, Y³⁺, Yb²⁺, and Zn²⁺. The aqueous solutions of these salts were orally administrated to 16 experimental groups (one for each of the salts tested). The levels of fluoride, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cumulative 24-h urine samples and creatinine clearance were measured to assess possible acute renal damages. The levels of fluoride, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were also determined in serum samples to assess possible acute hepatic damages. The results reveal that sodium fluoride (NaF), potassium fluoride (KF), and zinc fluoride tetrahydrate (ZnF₂ .4H₂O) can carry the fluoride ion into the bloodstream and that it is excreted via urine more readily than the other compounds tested. These fluorides were assigned the highest risk impact factor. Most of the rare earth fluorides are insoluble in water while those groups 2 and 13 of the periodic table are slightly soluble, so that they do not have a significant negative risk. These findings suggest that the biological impact of fluoride depends on the accompanying counter ion and its solubility. The risk map obtained in the present study shows that the graphical visualization map technique employed is a valuable new tool to assess the toxicological risk of chemical compounds.