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Oriented Immobilization of Bacteriophages for Biosensor Applications

Tolba, M., Minikh, O., Brovko, L.Y., Evoy, S., Griffiths, M.W.
Applied and environmental microbiology 2010 v.76 no.2 pp. 528-535
Escherichia coli B, bacteria, bacteriophages, biotin, cellulose, coat proteins, genes, host range, latent period, pathogenicity, polymerase chain reaction, transport proteins
A method was developed for oriented immobilization of bacteriophage T4 through introduction of specific binding ligands into the phage head using a phage display technique. Fusion of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein gene (bccp) or the cellulose binding module gene (cbm) with the small outer capsid protein gene (soc) of T4 resulted in expression of the respective ligand on the phage head. Recombinant bacteriophages were characterized in terms of infectivity. It was shown that both recombinant phages retain their lytic activity and host range. However, phage head modification resulted in a decreased burst size and an increased latent period. The efficiency of bacteriophage immobilization with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and cellulose-based materials was investigated. It was shown that recombinant bacteriophages form specific and strong bonds with their respective solid support and are able to specifically capture and infect the host bacterium. Thus, the use of immobilized BCCP-T4 bacteriophage for an Escherichia coli B assay using a phage multiplication approach and real-time PCR allowed detection of as few as 800 cells within 2 h.