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18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid exerts protective effects against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity: potential role of PPARγ and Nrf2 upregulation
- Mahmoud, Ayman M., Al Dera, Hussein S.
- Genes & nutrition 2015 v.10 no.6 pp. 41
- antioxidants, blood serum, cyclophosphamide, cytokines, drug therapy, enzymes, hepatoprotective effect, hepatotoxicity, histopathology, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, liver, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, rats, transcription factor NF-kappa B
- 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (18β-GA) has been proposed as a promising hepatoprotective agent. The current study aimed to investigate the protective action and the possible mechanisms of 18β-GA against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced liver injury in rats, focusing on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Rats were administered 18β-GA at doses 25 and 50 mg/kg 2 weeks prior to CP injection. Five days after CP administration, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected. CP induced hepatic damage evidenced by the histopathological changes and significant increase in serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, liver marker enzymes, and liver lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO) levels. 18β-GA counteracted CP-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as assessed by restoration of the antioxidant defenses and diminishing of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation, and NO production. These hepatoprotective effects appear to depend on activation of Nrf2 and PPARγ, and subsequent suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that 18β-GA exerts hepatoprotective effects against CP through induction of antioxidant defenses and suppression of inflammatory response. This report also confers new information that 18β-GA protects liver against the toxic effect of chemotherapeutic alkylating agents via activation of Nrf2 and PPARγ.