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Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems

Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan, Masuchi, Monise Helen, Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji, Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele, Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani, de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni, Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter
Journal of food science and technology 2015 v.52 no.7 pp. 3925-3946
Elaeis guineensis, additives, cocoa butter, crystallization, diacylglycerols, emulsifiers, fractionation, free fatty acids, monoacylglycerols, phospholipids, processed foods, processing technology, thermal properties
Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms with crystallization of fats and oils.