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Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation

Difo, V. H., Onyike, E., Ameh, D. A., Njoku, G. C., Ndidi, U. S.
Journal of food science and technology 2015 v.52 no.9 pp. 6043-6048
Aspergillus niger, Vigna, alkaloids, antinutritional factors, ash content, calcium, crude fiber, fermentation, flour, hydrogen cyanide, iron, lectins, lipids, magnesium, microorganisms, oxalates, phytic acid, protein content, proximate composition, raffinose, sodium, stachyose, trypsin inhibitors, water content, zinc
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work.