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Enhanced degradation of pendimethalin by immobilized cells of Bacillus lehensis XJU

More, Veena S., Tallur, Preeti N., Niyonzima, Francois N., More, Sunil S.
3 Biotech 2015 v.5 no.6 pp. 967-974
agar, alginates, bacteria, biodegradation, foams, immobilized cells, metabolites, pH, pendimethalin, polluted soils, polyacrylamide, polyurethanes, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, soil sampling, temperature
A bacterium capable of degrading pendimethalin was isolated from the contaminated soil samples and identified as Bacillus lehensis XJU based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 6-Aminopendimethalin and 3,4-dimethyl 2,6-dinitroaniline were identified as the metabolites of pendimethalin degradation by the bacterium. The biodegradation of pendimethalin by freely suspended and the immobilized cells of B. lehensis on various matrices namely agar, alginate, polyacrylamide, and polyurethane foam was also investigated. The batch degradation rate was nearly the same for both free and immobilized cells in agar and alginate, whereas polyacrylamide- and PUF-immobilized cells degraded 93 and 100 of 0.1 % pendimethalin after 96 and 72 h, respectively. At higher concentration, the degradation rate of freely suspended cells decreased; whereas the same immobilized cells on polyurethane foam completely degraded 0.2 % pendimethalin within 96 h. The repeated batch degradation with the polyurethane foam-immobilized cells was reused for 35 cycles without losing the 0.1 % pendimethalin degrading ability. In contrast, agar-, alginate- and polyacrylamide-immobilized cells could be reused for 15, 18, and 25 cycles, respectively. When the pendimethalin concentration was increased to 0.2 %, the immobilized cells could be reused but the pendimethalin degradation rate was decreased. Polyurethane foam-immobilized cells exhibited better tolerance to pH and temperature alterations than freely suspended cells and could be stored for more than 3 months without losing pendimethalin degrading ability. The immobilization of cells capable of degrading pendimethalin may serve as an ideal technique for the complete degradation of the herbicide in the environment.