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A high incidence of chromosome abnormalities in two-cell stage porcine IVP embryos

Hornak, Miroslav, Jeseta, Michal, Hanulakova, Sarka, Rubes, Jiri
Journal of applied genetics 2015 v.56 no.4 pp. 515-523
blastocyst, chromosome aberrations, chromosomes, comparative genomic hybridization, cytogenetic analysis, gametogenesis, genome, meiosis, polyspermy, swine, zygote
In pigs, in vitro production is difficult with a high occurrence of polyspermy and low blastocyst formation rates. To test the hypothesis that this may, at least in part, be due to chromosomal errors, we employed whole genome amplification and comparative genomic hybridization, performing comprehensive chromosome analysis to assess both cells of the two-cell stage in vitro porcine embryos. We thus described the incidence, nature and origin of chromosome abnormalities, i.e. whether they derived from incorrect meiotic division during gametogenesis or aberrant mitotic division in the zygote. We observed that 19 out of 51 (37 %) of two-cell stage early pig IVP embryos had a chromosome abnormality, mostly originating from an abnormal division in the zygote. Moreover, we frequently encountered multiple aneuploidies and segmental chromosome aberrations. These results indicate that the pig may be particularly sensitive to in vitro production, which may, in turn, be due to incorrect chromosome segregations during meiosis and early cleavage divisions. We thus accept our hypothesis that chromosome abnormality could explain poor IVP outcomes in pigs.