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A molecular phylogeny and classification of Bignoniaceae
- Olmstead, Richard G., Zjhra, Michelle L., Lohmann, Lúcia G., Grose, Susan O., Eckert, Andrew J.
- American journal of botany 2009 v.96 no.9 pp. 1731-1743
- Tabebuia, ecosystems, flora, lianas, phylogeny, sequence analysis, shrubs, trees
- Bignoniaceae are woody, trees, shrubs, and lianas found in all tropical floras of the world with lesser representation in temperate regions. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast sequences (rbcL, ndhF, trnL-F) were undertaken to infer evolutionary relationships in Bignoniaceae and to revise its classification. Eight clades are recognized as tribes (Bignonieae, Catalpeae, Coleeae, Crescentieae, Jacarandeae, Oroxyleae, Tecomeae, Tourrettieae); additional inclusive clades are named informally. Jacarandeae and Catalpeae are resurrected; the former is sister to the rest of the family, and the latter occupies an unresolved position within the "core" Bignoniaceae. Tribe Eccremocarpeae is included in Tourrettieae. Past classifications recognized a large Tecomeae, but this tribe is paraphyletic with respect to all other tribes. Here Tecomeae are reduced to a clade of approximately 12 genera with a worldwide distribution in both temperate and tropical ecosystems. Two large clades, Bignonieae and Crescentiina, account for over 80% of the species in the family. Coleeae and Crescentieae are each included in larger clades, the Paleotropical alliance and Tabebuia alliance, respectively; each alliance includes a grade of taxa assigned to the traditional Tecomeae. Parsimony inference suggests that the family originated in the neotropics, with at least five dispersal events leading to the Old World representatives.