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Glycerol assimilation and production of 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19

Ainala, Satish Kumar, Ashok, Somasundar, Ko, Yeounjoo, Park, Sunghoon
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2013 v.97 no.11 pp. 5001-5011
Citrobacter amalonaticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, aerobic conditions, anaerobic conditions, carbon, cell growth, culture media, electrons, fermentation, glycerol, hydrogen production, nitrates, nucleotide sequences, operon, vitamins
Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19 (Y19) was isolated because of its ability for carbon monoxide-dependent hydrogen production (water–gas shift reaction). This paper reports the assimilation of glycerol and the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by Y19. Genome sequencing revealed that Y19 contained the genes for the utilization of glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (pdu operon) along with those for the synthesis of coenzyme B₁₂ (cob operon). On the other hand, it did not possess the genes for the fermentative metabolism of glycerol of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which consists of both the oxidative (dhaD and dhaK) and reductive (dhaB and dhaT) pathways. In shake-flask cultivation under aerobic conditions, Y19 could grow well with glycerol as the sole carbon source and produced 1,3-PDO. The level of 1,3-PDO production was improved when vitamin B₁₂ was added to the culture medium under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, cell growth and 1,3-PDO production on glycerol was also possible, but only when an exogenous electron acceptor, such as nitrate or fumarate, was added. This is the first report of the glycerol metabolism and 1,3-PDO production by C. amalonaticus Y19.