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Assessment of amendments for the immobilization of Cu in soils containing EDDS leachates
- Yang, Li, Jiang, Longfei, Wang, Guiping, Chen, Yahua, Shen, Zhenguo, Luo, Chunling
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2015 v.22 no.21 pp. 16525-16534
- biochar, biodegradability, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, chelating agents, copper, ferrihydrite, gibbsite, heavy metals, leachates, leaching, manganese dioxide, organic fertilizers, phytoremediation, pollution, risk, soil, soil amendments, soil washing, solutions
- In this study, the effectiveness of six soil amendments (ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, gibbsite, calcium carbonate, biochar, and organic fertilizer) was investigated to assess the feasibility of minimizing possible environmental contaminant leaching during S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-enhanced phytoextraction process based on 0.01-M CaCl₂ extraction. Results showed that the application of EDDS could significantly increase Cu concentrations in the leaching solution. Compared with control, incorporation of six amendments (excluding organic fertilizer) significantly decreased CaCl₂-extractable Cu concentrations in both soils. When EDDS-containing solutions leached from the soil columns (mimicking the upper soil layers) were added to soils with different amendments (mimicking the subsoil), CaCl₂-extractable Cu in the soils amended with ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, gibbsite, and calcium carbonate was significantly lower than that in the control soil (no amendments) and remained relatively constant during the first 14 days. Incorporation of biochar or organic fertilizer had no positive effect on the immobilization of Cu in EDDS leachates in soils. After 14 days, CaCl₂-extractable Cu concentration decreased rapidly in soils incorporated with various amendments. Integrating soil washing with biodegradable chelating agents or chelant-enhanced phytoextraction and immobilization of heavy metals in subsoil could be used to rapidly reduce the concentration of bioavailable metal fractions in the upper soil layers and minimize environmental risks of secondary pollution.