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BFCOD activity in fish cell lines and zebrafish embryos and its modulation by chemical ligands of human aryl hydrocarbon and nuclear receptors

Creusot, N., Brion, F., Piccini, B., Budzinski, H., Porcher, J. M., Aït-Aïssa, S.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2015 v.22 no.21 pp. 16393-16404
Danio rerio, aquatic environment, bioassays, biological models, biomarkers, cell lines, clotrimazole, dexamethasone, dioxins, ecotoxicology, enzyme activity, exposure assessment, fish, glucocorticoids, hepatocytes, humans, ketoconazole, ligands, liver, methoxsalen, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, receptors, rifampicin, testosterone
Assessment of exposure and effect of fish to pharmaceuticals that contaminate aquatic environment is a current major issue in ecotoxicology and there is a need to develop specific biological marker to achieve this goal. Benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) enzymatic activity has been commonly used to monitor CYP3A activity in fish. In this study, we assessed the capacity of a panel of toxicologically relevant chemicals to modulate BFCOD activity in fish, by using in vitro and in vivo bioassays based on fish liver cell lines (PLHC-1, ZFL, RTL-W1) and zebrafish embryos, respectively. Basal BFCOD activity was detectable in all biological models and was differently modulated by chemicals. Ligands of human androgens, glucocorticoids, or pregnanes X receptors (i.e., dexamethasone, RU486, rifampicin, SR12813, T0901317, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone) moderately increased or inhibited BFCOD activity, with some variations between the models. No common feature could be drawn by regards to their capacity to bind to these receptors, which contrasts with their known effect on mammalian CYP3A. In contrast, dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) strongly induced BFCOD activity (up to 30-fold) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, both in vitro in all cell lines and in vivo in zebrafish embryos. These effects were AhR dependent as indicated by suppression of induced BFCOD by the AhR pathway inhibitors 8-methoxypsoralen and α-naphthoflavone. Altogether our result further question the relevance of using liver BFCOD activity as a biomarker of fish exposure to CYP3A-active compounds such as pharmaceuticals.