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Bioconversion of cashew nut shell into organic manure by white rot fungus

Theradimani, M., Ramesh Kumar, S.
Acta horticulturae 2015 no.1080 pp. 165-170
Azospirillum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, Pseudomonas fluorescens, antagonists, biofertilizers, biotransformation, calcium, carbon, carbon nitrogen ratio, cashew nuts, cellulose, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, laccase, lignin, magnesium, nitrogen, nitrogen content, nutrient content, organic wastes, pH, phosphorus, potassium, white-rot fungi
The present study was taken up to exploit cashew nut waste by using white-rot fungi such as Pleurotus spp. (P. djamor, P. eous, P. sajor-caju, P. florida), Calocybeindica, Hypsizygusulmarius, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, antagonists viz., Trichodermaviride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, biofertilizers viz., Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria to degrade by them. By thus bioconversion cashew-waste is changed into useful manure which acts as an organic amendment. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were tested on the growth of white rot fungi. Among eight fungi tested, P. chrysosporium, P. djamor and P. florida effectively utilized the carbon and nitrogen sources. In vitro production of cellulase and laccase by white-rot fungi showed that Pleurotus djamor and P. chrysosporium have efficient production of cellulase (endocellulase and exocellulase) and laccase. Inoculation of cashew waste with Pleurotus spp., antagonists and biofertilizers reduced organic carbon content and increased total nitrogen content significantly. The maximum reduction of C:N ratio, cellulose and lignin were observed in P. djamor, P. sajor-caju and T. viride. The pH of the composted organic wastes was very close to neutral and EC contains less than 0.25 mS/cm. Nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) was high in cashew nut waste inoculated with P. djamor followed by P. sajor-caju and T. viride.