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Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract and compounds isolated from Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br. root

Perianayagam, James B., Sharma, S.K., Pillai, K.K., Pandurangan, A., Kesavan, D.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2012 v.142 no.1 pp. 283-286
Trichodesma, antibacterial properties, dysentery, ethanol, fever, in vitro studies, leprosy, microorganisms, minimum inhibitory concentration, roots, skin diseases, traditional medicine
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The roots are reportedly used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, leprosy, skin diseases and fever. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of present study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of ethanol extract of Trichdesma indicum root, and its purified compounds and to validate scientifically its use in traditional medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The root of Trichdesma indicum was extracted with ethanol and subjected to chromatographic separation for isolation of phytochemical compounds. Structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of the ethanol extract of T. indicum and isolated compounds were primarily evaluated by a disc diffusion test. The anti-microbial efficacy of the ethanol extract or isolated compounds was then assessed in vitro by determining minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). RESULTS: n-Decanyl laurate (1), n-tetradecanyl laurate (2), n-nonacosanyl palmitate (3), stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-21(24)-olide (4), n-pentacos-9-one (5), n-dotriacont-9-one-13-ene (6), stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-23-one (7) and lanast-5-en-3β-D-glucopyranosyl-21 (24)-olide (8) were isolated from ethanol extract of T.indicum. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds (1–8) showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activities. The ethanol extract exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis and C. albicans with an MIC value of 19.2μg/ml. Among all the isolated compounds, lanast-5-en-3β-D-glucopyranosyl-21 (24)-olide (8) displayed strongest antibacterial activity against S. aureus with MIC value of 2.4μg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The results of present study provide ground basis for the potential use of the ethanol extract Trichodesma indicum root as well as the some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of infections associated with the studied microorganisms.