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The Toxic Aldehyde, 4-Hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) Formation in Natural and Imitation Mozzarella Cheeses: Heat Treatment Effects
- Han, In Hwa, Csallany, A. Saari
- journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2012 v.89 no.10 pp. 1801-1805
- heat treatment, linoleic acid, lipid peroxidation, mozzarella cheese, temperature, toxicity, vegetable oil
- The formation of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde formation, was investigated in heat treated imitation Mozzarella cheeses which are made with vegetable oils and in natural Mozzarella cheeses which contain dairy fats. The cheeses were heat treated at 204Â Â°C for 30 and 60Â min, and at 232Â Â°C for 15 and 30Â min. The HNE formations were much higher in imitation cheeses than in natural cheeses due to both heat treatments. Average HNE concentrations in imitation cheeses, after 30Â min of heat treatment at 204Â Â°C, were 110.3Â ng HNE/g cheese and it increased to 877.1Â ng HNE/g cheese when the temperature was raised to 232Â Â°C. In natural cheeses, the average HNE concentration was much lower only 13.4Â ng HNE/g cheese after 204Â Â°C heat treatment for 30Â min and it increased only to 182.8Â ng HNE/g cheese using 232Â Â°C. Since imitation cheeses are made with vegetable oils which contain much higher levels of linoleic acid, a precursor for HNE, than dairy fat, it is not surprising that heat-induced lipid peroxidation results in increased HNE formation in imitations cheeses compared to dairy fat containing cheeses, which are low in linoleic acid.