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Genomic Diversity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in China

L. Gallipoli, M. Butler, A. Mazzaglia, P. Stockwell, I. Lamont, L. Zhu, P. Liu, G. M. Balestra, R. T. M. Poulter
Acta horticulturae 2015 v. no.1095 pp. 59-64
Actinidia, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, bacteria, genetic variation, genome, kiwifruit, nucleotide sequences, pandemic, sequence analysis, Chile, China, Italy, Japan, New Zealand
Multiple outbreaks of a severe disease of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) have occurred in Italy, New Zealand and Chile in the last few years. The disease was first reported in China and Japan in the 1980s, regions where the genus Actinidia is endemic. We have investigated the likely origin of the global pandemic using data from the whole genome sequencing of multiple strains from Italy, New Zealand and Chile. The genomes of these strains are very similar, although it was possible to distinguish Psa strains from Italy, New Zealand or Chile on the basis of shared base substitutions. The Chinese strains in our present analysis show a high level of genome sequence variation, with at least four distinct lineages being present in China. One of these lineages has genome sequences closely similar to those of the outbreak strains.