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Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and environmental tobacco smoke, nutrient intake, and oxidative stress in Japanese preschool children
- Mori, Takuya, Yoshinaga, Jun, Suzuki, Kei, Mizoi, Miho, Adachi, Shu-ichi, Tao, Hiroaki, Nakazato, Tetsuya, Li, Yun-Shan, Kawai, Kazuaki, Kasai, Hiroshi
- The Science of the total environment 2011 v.409 no.15 pp. 2881-2887
- acids, arsenic, biomarkers, copper, environmental exposure, food availability, food consumption, kindergarten, manganese, nutrient intake, oxidative stress, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, preschool children, regression analysis, selenium, smoking (habit), surveys, urinalysis, urine, vitamin A, zinc, Japan
- The association between oxidative stress and exposure to environmental chemicals was assessed in a group of Japanese preschool children. The concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and cotinine in spot urine samples, collected from 134 children (3–6yrs) from a kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress or exposure to environmental chemicals. For 76 subjects of the 134, intakes of anti-oxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium (Se)) were estimated from a food consumption survey carried out 2–4weeks after urine sampling and by urine analysis (Se). The median (min–max) creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary biomarkers were 4.45 (1.98–12.3), 0.127 (0.04–2.41), 4.78 (1.18–12.7), and 0.62 (<0.6–19.0)μg/g cre for 8-OHdG, 1-OHP, iAs+MMA, and cotinine, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using 8-OHdG concentration as a dependent variable and urinary biomarkers of exposure and Se intake, intakes of vitamins and biological attributes of the subjects as independent variables. To explain 8-OHdG concentrations, intake of vitamin A and age were significant variables with negative coefficients, while 1-OHP concentration had a positive coefficient. These results indicated that oxidative stress of children is affected by chemical exposure at environmental levels, by nutrient intake and by physiological factors in a complex manner. On the other hand, unstable statistical results due to sub-grouping of subject, based on the availability of food consumption data, were found: the present results should further be validated by future studies with suitable research design.