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Production of Macrophomina phaseolina Conidia by Multiple Soybean Isolates in Culture

Ma, J., Hill, C.B., Hartman, G.L.
Plant disease 2010 v.94 no.9 pp. 1088
Macrophomina phaseolina, plant pathogenic fungi, conidia, plant rots, host-pathogen relationships, microbial growth, culture media, Glycine max, soybeans, inoculum, in vitro culture, pycnidia, oilseeds, plant extracts, sporulation, agar, spore germination, strain differences, laboratory techniques
Macrophomina phaseolina is the cause of charcoal rot of soybean (Glycine max). Resistance to M. phaseolina in commercial soybean cultivars is not common but is needed in locations where the disease is chronic and severe. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable method to produce sufficient M. phaseolina conidia that can be used to inoculate soybean plants in a high-throughput resistance-screening program. Production of pycnidia is not common on most culture media, such as potato dextrose agar, but can be produced on media containing plant parts or oilseed extracts. Seven semi-defined media were tested to induce pycnidia production. Results indicated that the number of pycnidia that were produced by eight M. phaseolina isolates was dependent on induction medium; however, peanut butter extract-saturated filter paper placed over soynut butter extract agar (PESEA) allowed for greater pycnidia and conidia production than the other media tested. Production of pycnidia on PESEA ranged from 269 to 1,082 per plate. There were no differences among isolates in germination of conidia produced on PESEA, which averaged 83 ± 2% germination. A conidial suspension from one M. phaseolina isolate produced on PESEA and inoculated onto soybean radicles significantly distinguished (P < 0.01) ‘DT97-4290’, a soybean genotype with partial resistance to charcoal rot, from a susceptible genotype, ‘LS98-0358’. Results of this study indicated that multiple isolates of M. phaseolina from soybean produced sufficient amounts of conidia on PESEA to use as inoculum. This conidia inoculum production method will facilitate soybean charcoal rot resistance screening evaluation with different soybean isolates.