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Carotenoid content, its stability during drying and the antioxidant activity of commercial coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) varieties

Divya, Peethambaran, Puthusseri, Bijesh, Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi
Food research international 2012 v.45 no.1 pp. 342-350
Coriandrum sativum, DNA, antioxidant activity, biomass, drying, gallic acid, hydroxyl radicals, leaves, ovens, pigments, seedlings, seeds, vitamin A
Although populations of several tropical countries are under severe vitamin-A deficiency, traditional sources of pro-vitamin-A carotenoids have not been exploited due to the lack of relevant research data. In this study, ten commercial varieties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), grown at identical conditions, were evaluated for carotenoids, their bio-efficacy and stability during drying, with the main emphasis on β-carotene (vitamin-A precursor) analysis by HPLC-MS. In all varieties, β-carotene content was higher in foliage at mature stage, than in seedlings and seeds. Variety GS4 Multicut produced highest biomass (6.18±0.73g/plant), total carotenoids (217.50±5.6mg/100g DW) and β-carotene (73.64±0.3mg/100g DW) at pre-flowering stage. Carotenoids extract showed a high antioxidant activity with IC₅₀ value of 14.29±1.68μg/ml, scavenging hydroxyl radicals and rendering higher protection to DNA than by standard gallic acid (IC₅₀=357.21±4.29). Microwave drying of foliage was rapid with better retention of pigments, high intactness of trans-β-carotene and higher extractability of pigments when compared with oven drying.