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Host Plant Effects on Development and Reproduction of the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

Chen, Wenlong, Boetel, Mark A.
Environmental entomology 2010 v.39 no.5 pp. 1545
plant-insect relations, Homalodisca vitripennis, insect development, insect reproduction, mortality, longevity, life tables, oviposition, mating behavior, Helianthus annuus, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Euonymus japonicus, host plants, sunflower seed products, cut flowers, ornamental woody plants, insect pests, egg masses, embryogenesis, larval development, nymphs, females, insect rearing
Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction, and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L., and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thurb.). Females deposited similar-sized egg masses on all three plants. Hatching was highest with eggs deposited on euonymus and lowest for those deposited on sunflower. Embryonic development time among host plants was similar while nymph development time was shortest on sunflower and longest on euonymus. Nymph survival to adulthood ranged from 32% on euonymus to 82% for those reared on sunflower. Adult females had similar life spans on sunflower and chrysanthemum. H. vitripennis completed a lengthy egg-to-adult development on euonymus, however, mating did not occur. The onset of mating was contingent on maturation of adult females. The majority of mating activity occurred within the first three days after onset. Premating periods ranged from 6 to 7 d on sunflower to 27 d on chrysanthemum, with overall mating rates of 77.4 and 19.8%, respectively. Females typically mated more than once and they had the longest oviposition period and highest egg production on sunflower; approximately equal to 50 and 67% of total number of eggs were deposited within first 45 d after the start of oviposition on sunflower and chrysanthemum, respectively. Adult size and weight related to which host plant was consumed throughout development. Greater intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate, and shorter population doubling time occurred when the sharpshooters were allowed to develop on sunflower. The overall developmental and reproductive parameters obtained in this study indicate that a mixed host plant system, composed of sunflower and euonymus or chrysanthemum plants, is an efficient means for optimizing egg production and colony maintenance of the glassy-winged sharpshooter.