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Antioxidant properties and mutagenicity of Pinus morrisonicola and its vinegar preparation
- Chen, Ya-Hui, Hsieh, Pao-Chuan, Mau, Jeng-Leun, Sheu, Shyang-Chwen
- Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2011 v.44 no.6 pp. 1477-1481
- Ames test, Pinus parviflora, Salmonella typhimurium, acidity, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, ethanol, fermentation, free radicals, mutagenicity, powders, vinegars, wines
- Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hayata) needles was tested for toxicity and mutagenicity by Ames test and reducing power and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. Based on the tests on Salmonella typhimurium TA97 and TA100, P. morrisonicola extract was not toxic and mutagenic. The reducing powers of P. morrisonicola extract and ascorbic acid were comparable with both effective concentration (EC₅₀) values being 0.06 mg/mL. The extract was more effective in scavenging ability and EC₅₀ values were 0.02 and 0.04 mg/mL for P. morrisonicola extract and ascorbic acid, respectively. With P. morrisonicola powder (50 mg/mL) added to the cultured saccharified broth at day 1, the wine with an ethanol content of 8.23% was produced at day 12. After 11 days of fermentation, the vinegar was obtained with an acidity of 5.21 g/100 mL. Accordingly, P. morrisonicola could be used in the development of alcoholic and vinegar products to provide its beneficial health effects.